Akbar the Great (1542–1605) and Christianity. Between religion and politics

Agnieszka Kuczkiewicz-Fraś


The second half of the 16th century, during the reign of India’s third, and widely regarded as the greatest, ruler of the Mughal dynasty, Jalāl ud-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, was also the time when the Europeans were becoming increasingly present on the Indian Subcontinent. Especially active among them were the Portuguese – both in the political and economic sense as well as in the cultural and the religious dimension.

Słowa kluczowe

India, Mughal dynasty, Akbar the Great, Christianity

Pełny tekst:



Abū ’l-Faẓl ‘Allāmī, The Ā’īn-i Akbarī, vol. I, transl. by H. Blochmann, ed. D. C. Phillott, vol. II & III transl. by H. S. Jarret, Calcutta: Asiatic Society 1860–1894 (repr. 1993).

The Akbarnāma of Abu-l-Faẓl, vol. I-III, transl. from the Persian by H. Beveridge, Calcutta: Asiatic Society 1897-.

Satish Chandra, Medieval India: from Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, New Delhi: Har Anand Publications 1993.

Letters from the Mughal Court: the first Jesuit mission to Akbar (1580–1583), edited with an introduction of John Correia-Afonso, Studies in Indian History and Culture of the Heras Institute, vol. 24, Anand: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, 1980.

Pierre Du Jarric, Akbar and the Jesuits: an account of the Jesuit missions to the court of Akbar, translated with introduction and notes by C. H. Payne, London: George Routledge & Sons, 1926 (repr. London: Routledge 2004).

Leonard Fernando, G. Gispert-Sauch, Christianity in India: Two Thousand Years of Faith, New Delhi: Viking, 2004.

Frykenberg R.E., Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-cultural Communication since 1500, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Frykenberg R.E., Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press 2008.

Francis G., Gentiles, [in:] The Catholic Encyclopaedia, Vol. 6, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved July 15, 2011,

Havell E.B., A Handbook to Agra and the Taj, Sikandra, Fatehpur-Sikri, and the Neighbourhood, London: Longmans, Green and Co. 1904.

Jackson P., ‘Jesuits at the Moghul Court’, Vidyajyoti 1980, Vol. 44, Delhi, pp. 108–113.

Maclagan E., The Jesuits and the Great Mogul, London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne 1932.

The commentary of Father Monserrate, S.J., on his journey to the Court of Akbar, translated from the original Latin by J. S. Hoyland and annotated by S. N. Banerjee, London: Humphrey Milford, 1922.

Muntaxab al-tavārīx ‘Abdu-’l-Qādir Ibn-i-Mulūk Shāh, known as Al-Badāoni, Muntakhabu-t-tawārīkh, translated from the original Persian and edited by George S. A. Ranking (vol. I), W. H. Lowe (vol. II) and Sir Wolseley Haig (vol. III), Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal 1884–1925

Neill S., A history of Christianity in India: the beginnings to AD 1707, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Akbar & religion, Delhi: Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Delli, 1989.

Pirbhai M. Reza, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, Social Sciences in Asia, Vol. 25, Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2009.

Rizvi S.A.A, Religious and intellectual history of the Muslims in Akbar’s reign, with special reference to Abu’l Fazl (1556–1605), New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1975.

Schimmel A., The empire of the great Mughals: history, art and culture, translated by Corinne Atwood, edited by Burzine K. Waghmar, London: Reaktion, 2004.

Smith V.A., Akbar, the Great Moghul (1542–1605), Oxford: Clarendon Press 1919.

Nizām al-Dīn Ahmad The ṭabaqāt-i-Akbarī, a history of India from the early Musalmān invasions to the thirty-eight year of the reign of Akbar, transl. and annotated by Brajendranath De, rev. and ed. by Baini Prashad, Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Soc. of Bengal 1913-

Troll Christian W. , Islam in India (Studies and Commentaries), Vol. I: The Akbar Mission and Miscellaneous Studies, New Delhi 1982.

Copyright (c) 2015 Agnieszka Kuczkiewicz-Fraś